The Intensity Scale (sometimes called the Gray Scale)
not only controls the Image Contrast within all displayed images
but it also controls how the Red, Green and Blue primary colors mix
to produce all of the on-screen colors.
The steeper the Intensity Scale the greater the on-screen image contrast and
the higher the saturation of all displayed color mixtures.
Intensity Scale Accuracy
So if the Intensity Scale does not follow the Standard
that is used in all consumer content then the colors and intensities
will be inaccurate everywhere in all images.
In order to deliver accurate color and image contrast a display must closely
match the Standard Intensity Scale.
below shows the measured Intensity Scales for the
Pixel 4 XL alongside the industry standard Gamma of 2.2,
which is the straight black line.
Logarithmic Intensity Scale
Both the eye and the Intensity Scale Standard operate
on a logarithmic scale,
which is why the Intensity Scale must be plotted and evaluated
on a log scale as we have done below.
The linear scale plots that are published by many reviewers
are bogus and completely meaningless because
it is log ratios rather than linear differences
that matter to the eye for seeing accurate Image Contrast.
Variation with Average Picture Level APL
below shows the variation in the Intensity Scales between
Low APL and 50% APL.
For the Pixel 4 XL there is effectively No Shift in the Intensity Scales with APL,
with a Gamma of 2.19 for Low APL and 2.20 for 50% APL.
As a result, the Image Contrast appears unchanged with APL,
and we then expect the Absolute Color Accuracy to also
have very small variations with APL, which is examined in
The Intensity Scales for the Pixel 4 XL
closely match the Standard Intensity Scale.